The melting of Antarctic ice causes sea level rise which has been a significant warning to scientists about the global warming crisis. According to a recent study, nearly the Antarctica has lost almost 3 trillion metric tons of ice since 1992. And the ice has melted more rapidly in recently years, with 40% of the ice being ablated in the past 5 years. If the situation continues to deteriorate, the rate of sea level rise will be faster than we expected. In this case, many cities we are familiar with will be flooded by sea in a short time in the future.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) clearly stated in the 2014 report that “The warming of the climate system is unquestionable. Many of the changes observed since the 1950s have never been seen in decades or even thousands of years. Atmosphere and ocean warming, snow and ice are gradually decreasing, sea level rising and greenhouse gases concentration has been increasing these years. Due to climate and sea warming, leading to the melting of glaciers, a large amount of ice water enters the ocean and causes sea level to rise” The 2014 report pointed out: “For the past 20 years，the ice of the Greenland ice sheet and the Antarctic ice sheet has been losing. Almost all glaciers around the world continue to shrink and Arctic sea ice and spring snow cover in the northern hemisphere continue to shrink too.” An international team of 84 scientists from 14 countries reviewed the results of the recent 24 Antarctic ice loss measurements. Based on this review, they get the accurate figures on changes in Antarctica and published the latest research results in the journal in <Nature>.This research reveals that Antarctica has 2.7 trillion metric tons of ice ablation since 1992, increased sea level by about 0.8 cm. And the rate of ice ablation continues to soar. If the rate of ablation is not slowed down some scientists worry that the worst outcome of sea level rise may come true. There is not much time left for the low-lying cities. Specifically, the research team pointed out that Antarctica lost 49 billion metric tons of ice per year from 1992 to 1997. However, since 2012, the ice melting rate has accelerated, with an average annual melting of 219 billion metric tons. The melting rate of ice is three times that of the past, and the amount of ice that has been ablated in the past five years accounts for 40% of the total ice ablation in the past 25 years. Global sea level rise is deteriorating every year. Scientists are worried about the melting of ice in Antarctica has led to the current rate of sea level rise faster than at any time in the past 25 years. Follow this speed, by the end of the 21st century, the melting of Antarctic glaciers could cause sea levels to rise by as much as 16 cm. Coastal cities may be overwhelmed by then. Some scientists have called for warning, the continued high emissions of carbon dioxide threaten the crisis of rising sea levels to a dangerous level. But if countries strictly abide by the Paris climate agreement, even if it is impossible to prevent the changes that have occurred now, it will help to control the extent of their deterioration.
There are many maps that show the many coastal areas in Taiwan and how, over time they will face the crisis of being inundated by rising sea levels. The United Nations Climate Change Paris Summit has concluded that the global temperature ceiling is 1.5 degrees Celsius and should not exceed 2 degrees Celsius. The US Central Climate Research Organization (Climate Central) has made a set of global comparisons graphs of global temperature changing in 2 degrees and 4 degrees. It can be seen from the figure that Taiwan’s several areas will be submerged by sea level after global temperature raised about 4 degrees Celsius. Including northern areas of Taipei, Yilan, Yunlin, Changhua, Chiayi, Tainan, and even Kaohsiung’s low-lying areas will be inundated. The United Nations Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) also warned that if global warming fails to improve, many island countries will also face difficulties in water salinization and food shortages in 2100. In the case of the earth’s temperature rises again by 4 degrees Celsius, not only island countries like Taiwan will be affected. Sea level will inundate the living area of more than 600 million people in the whole world. Among them, China’s losses are the most serious, and many cities and coastal areas will eventually be submerged by the sea. According to the 2015 “Sydney Morning Herald” report, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in addition to China, others include the residence of 34 million people in Japan, 25 million in the United States, 20 million in the Philippines, 19 million in Egypt, and 16 million in Brazil living area will be soaked in the sea. Furthermore, millions of people in the Indian city of Calcutta will live in the sea. Amount the 10 cities most affected in the world, China include four, including Shanghai, Tianjin, Hong Kong, and Taizhou, including major economic development cities. The report also pointed out if the temperature only rises 2 degrees Celsius, the situation will be better. But there are still 280 million people living in the world will be inundated. In the past, there were three main reasons for affecting global sea level change: sea water temperature change, ice melting and human activities. However, results from researches also shows changes in terrestrial hydrological cycles due to climate change have a significant impact on sea level changes. According to the speculation results of the scientists, the average sea level should rise by 3.3 mm every year in the past 10 years. But according to the research, it actually only rises 2.5 mm. The rate of slowing sea level rise is about 0.71 mm per year. The research team confirmed through data analysis that in recent years, anti-El Nino phenomenon have caused the rain area to move. Including increased rainfall in the Amazon, southern Africa and eastern Australia. Moreover, these rain often happened in the inland river basins, rainwater cannot flow into the sea and the water content of the land is greatly increased. The research team also analyzed climate and hydrological data for the past 100 years. It has been found that about every 10 to 20 years, the rate of rise in sea level will slow down and then gradually increase. According to the above explanation, although the global sea level rise is slowing down, it cannot be taken lightly. Because of past experience, it may have dramatic changes in short future.